The Personable Lauren Land

By Kathryn Courtney

Lauren Land, the sustainability coordinator of the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program, talked to the class about the ADDIE model of project design. ADDIE stands for assessment, design, develop, implement and evaluate. ADDIE is not a slang term for Adderall the prescription drug used to treat ADHD, I obviously was confused. Through out her presentation, she was very personable. I felt like I could relate to her, which made her as an individual and her presentation very engaging.

I enjoyed the process agenda handout that she gave out. She had an example for the class to follow along. This handout was very helpful for our environmental communication project.

I thought she could have prepared a little better. She wanted to go out of order to determine the SMART objectives in her example. Personally, this didn’t bother me much, but it was a hiccup in the flow of her presentation. However, this hiccup just helped me understand how specific the SMART objectives need to be. Also, the hiccup made me like her even more because the interruption made her more personable and that people even professionals mess up too.

In conclusion, I enjoyed her ideas and learned a lot in her presentation. One idea that I was fond of is a course needs to be established about making and maintain relationships. Since I was a freshman, everyone told me that getting a job or being successful was all about relationships and networking.

Coastal Environment Policies

Mason André

One of the biggest environmental reforms occurred in the beginning of the 20th century when during the progressive era. In 1907 the Inland Waterways Commission was established which studied the impact of water transportation on the environment. This was a turn for the country, the industrial revolution was occurring and environmental issues took notice.

Another outstanding moment for the coastal environment and the US was in 1970 when President Nixon consolidated agencies to create the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). This agency regulated pollution levels and enforce federal environmental protection law.

One of the biggest trends that stands out is that most of the policies put in place for coastal environments appear after some crisis takes place. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska’s Prince William Sound. Another example is Proposition 65 which enables California to have clean and drinkable water. Now, California is known for having a lot of environmental protection, but only after voters decided the conditions were not okay.

You can see that before the 70’s, the only policies were in place to protect human, and control what we drank and ate. The laws were in place for us, but didn’t do anything for the environment. The governments concern did not lie in the earth but in the people. Once the 70’s hit and the US became more aware of the issues that we were facing, policies such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) and the Endangered Species Act (1973) were created. This was a result of several energy related challenges the US had to face during the 1970’s such as the OPEC Oil Embargo and the construction on the Alaskan Oil pipeline. In 1972 the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), or the ocean dumping act was installed. This allowed officials to regulate the materials going into the bodies of water surrounding the US and also authorized research to study the waters.

President Theodore Roosevelt was a huge contributor to the efforts put forth in environmentalism in the 1900’s. He was the first president to step up and take responsibility for environmental issues and do something about them. Roosevelt created over 200 national monuments and parks and actively pursued water and soil conservation.

Rachel Carson was also a key player in environmental issues in the 20th century. Rachel Carson was a biologist and conservationist that put a lot of attention and effort into the environment during the 30’s-50’s. Rachel researched bioaccumulation and the effects it had on the coastal environment which provided scientists to prevent this in the future.

Environmental achievements did not end in the 70’s. In 1980 Louis Gibbs, an environment activist, created the Citizens’ Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste after learning her sons school was built on toxic wasteland. She authored several books on the effects of toxic waste and it being dumped into waterways.

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One development that raises public fear within the coastal community is tourism. It’s common knowledge that bodies of water bring lots of visitors, but residents of these areas are not so keen on the idea. Issues such as water resources, air pollution, noise, solid waste and littering, sewage and physical impacts are all concerns of having too many tourists visit a specific location.

Increasing the number of people in any city increases the amount of waste, the amount of energy being used and creates an environment where large amounts of unused resources seems acceptable, but the impacts prove these tourists are detrimental to the health of the environment. Although there are environmental issues, tourism brings in lots of economic growth and can sustain a community much longer than if there were no tour industry. This brings tension in the debate of whether tourism is beneficial or not for coastal communities.

I believe tourism, in moderation, is beneficial. Yes there’s more energy and waste, but the awareness and education that comes from traveling to such coastal environments outweighs the environmental costs. If a city is bringing in twice the revenue they would without the tourism, they will have more funding for cleaning water, for picking up litter, and keeping up with the demands that the tour industry brings.

Taking a look at a different community, the European Commission states “Coastal and maritime tourism is the largest maritime activity in Europe and employs almost 3.2 million people, generating a total of € 183 billion in gross value added and representing over one third of the maritime economy”

While I understand the challenges associated with tourism, the answer is not less tourists, but more efficient ways to handle tourism so we can enjoy all the wonderful attributes of the coastal environment without harming it in the process.

US Environmental Policy and Current Issues

Sarah Patterson

Evolution of Environmental Policies

Environmental policy came about in the U.S. in the early 1900s. The first trend of policies focused on regulation of contaminants and pesticides. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act passed in 1938 and 1947. These two acts regulated the distribution and contamination of pesticides. The next era began with the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970 which mandated that federal agencies asses their environmental impacts. This led to many new policies and amendments that governed clean air, clean water, coastal protection, animal protection, land protection, resource protection, and toxic substance control. The government created all of these acts in the 19070s. This was the biggest trend of environmental policies in the United States with a large number of policies and amendments passed. These polices began to address the issue of the coast and its wildlife. The next set of policies dealt with planning and clean up. This includes the “Superfund” act, which requires cleanup of toxic waste sites, the Oil Pollution Act, which makes oil companies liable for cleanup and damages, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act, which requires companies to release information about toxic chemical output into the environment.

There were many impactful people in the environmental movement, first and for most is Rachel Carson. Rachel Carson was one of the first people to call attention to environmental issues, especially the spray of pesticides. She spoke out against the chemical industry and the government, with the public on her side. Congress outlawed DDT, a pesticide that Carson brought awareness too, in 1972.  Stewart Udall was another important figure in environmental policy. He was the Secretary of the Interior during JFK and Lyndon B Johnson’s presidency, and he pushed for environmental legislation. He played a large role in the addition of several national parks, coasts, lakes, and wildlife refuges. He also pushed for the Clean Air and Water Acts, and wildlife protection policies. Stewart Brand informs the public on sustainable living and encourages “organic living”. The first Earth Day, coordinated by Denis Hayes in 1970, brought national attention to environmental issues. Hayes also organized a political movement to remove Congress members with against environmental policy. President Jimmy Carter later appointed Hayes as the head of the Federal Solar Energy Research Institute. President Richard Nixon played a large role in the environmental policy movement. He was in office from 1969-1974, when the government passed some of the most environmental legislation. He formed the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and passed the National Environmental Policy Act, which federal agencies had to make environmental impact reports public. Nixon also passed the Clean Air and Water Acts, and many wildlife protection policies. Environmental policy has come a long way since the early 1900s, but there is still a lot of policy change that needs to be done in the environmental movement.

A Current Issue that Needs to be Addressed: The Dead Zone

dead zone

The Hypoxic Zone in the Gulf of Mexico, also known as the Dead Zone, is a growing problem in the Gulf. Hypoxia refers to the low oxygen content of the water in the gulf, which can no longer support marine life. Hypoxia occurs naturally in deep water areas, but hypoxic zones in shallow areas are a result of human interactions. “Dead zones occur when fertilizer runoff clogs waterways with nutrients…” which depletes the oxygen in the water, according to the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium. The “man-made” Hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is the second largest in the world, and has been receiving attention lately. The Dead Zone is a problem for locals along the coast because it effects the fishing industry and other wildlife industries. Each year the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, or the NOAA, releases a report on the Hypoxia levels in the Dead Zone and the effects tha it could have on the environment. “The reports clearly show the potential for environmental impact resulting from low dissolved oxygen in the Gulf of Mexico”, according to the Upper Mississippi River Basin Association. New policies need to be made in an effort to address the Dead Zone that is in the Gulf. On a large scale, the government needs to enact more policy on climate change, which will intern lead to a smaller hypoxic zone. But also, more specific policy on fertilizer and chemical outputs and other causes of the Hypoxic Zone need to be addressed as well.

 

coastal louisana

Picture is from here

By: Michelle Watson

Coastal environmental issues have long been a problem in the U.S. Marine biologist and famous science writer Rachel Carson informed the world about the environment and what to do to protect it.  However, enforcing policy on these problems did not become as apparent until the 1970’s, specifically under the Nixon Administration.

In the early 1900’s few coastal environmental policies were made. The National Park Service in 1916 made it so that places that were considered historical must be protected so that future children could see. In 1918, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act sought to protect birds that migrated from the U.S. to Great Britain and back. In order to hunt birds that are listed in this act you must have a waiver. Some of the birds on the list such as the Mississippi kite and swamp sparrow are birds that live along the coast. This is the first time that we see an effort being made to not just environmental policy but to coastal environmental policy as well.

If we break down coastal environmental policy into episodes, the most significant episode was under the Nixon administration. Environmental policy, laws, and concerns about the environment soared during these times. In 1970 the most familiar environmental agency in the U.S. the Environmental Protection Agency also known as EPA was founded. After that, environmental policy increased significantly. In 1972 the Coastal Zone Management Act was founded. This act allows state government and federal government to work together to keep a watch out on coastal problems. The Marine Mammal Act was passed in 1972 as well in order to protect specifically whales, dolphins, manatees and any other marine mammal in danger. Other environmental acts passed by the Nixon administration include the clean air act of 1970 and the clean water act of 1972.

Why was the Nixon administration so involved with environmental issues though? The reason this may be is because of the historical time period of the 70’s. The 70’s were a period dominated by the hippie culture where people were much more concerned with the environment. For example in 1970, the U.S. celebrated its first Earth Day. This decade was characterized by peace, and love for the environment. With ideas of loving the environment reaching a large pubic, it can be said that it was “cool” to want to save the environment. According to history.com, there were even announcements made during children’s television shows like the U.S. Forest Service’s Woodsy Owl, saying “Give it hoot, Don’t Pollute.”  If everyone else is doing it, then more people are going to want to do it as well, making it a social and cultural norm. With the creation of EPA and the Coastal Zone Management Act, we see the Nixon administration caring about the environment more so than their predecessors.

The environmental episode of the later 1970’s and 1980’s were characterized by the flow of coastal environmental policy continued into the next two decades with the creation of the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act in 1976 and the Ocean Dumping Act in 1988.

The coastal environmental episode of the 90’s was contributed by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. This oil spill immediately killed marine animals like orcas, sea otters, eagles and seals. The U.S. government responded by creating the Oil Pollution Act in 1990. This act was a direct result of the Exxon oil spill, requiring if a spill should ever happen again, oil companies should have a plan. To this day, the toxins of oil remain in the waters where this occurred.

 

Part 2:

The biggest coastal issue affecting Louisiana today is its diminishing coast.  Many organizations such as the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, also known as CPRA, have advocated for restoring the Gulf Coast and in some cases telling people that they need to move before the land disappears.

Resorting the Gulf Coast, specifically in Louisiana, has a lot to do with the faulty levees that were created in the 1930’s. These levees made by the government contribute to the loss of land in Louisiana. Before the creation of these levees the water from the Mississippi delta would flood the land and this would create more land, by allowing sedimentation to flow up and rest on the ground. The levees that we have now are not proper levees and are blocking the water that’s coming to make new land. A proper levee would allow water from tributaries to flow throughout the coast. Since the creation of the levees we have now, Louisiana has lost the land equivalent of New York City every 13 years.

There are many benefits to restoring the coast. According to a study done by a group of researchers at Duke University, the benefits of restoring the Gulf Coast include but are not limited to:

  • Provides job opportunities in the Gulf Coast region and 32 other states
  • Opportunities for well-established firms to utilize underused resources
  • Creates work for many firms within the marine construction industry

 

What we see here is that coastal restoration would not only help biologically by saving the animals that live there and geologically by allowing natural sedimentation to create land, but it would also help the economy. Specifically, cities and parishes along the coast would have more jobs for people. Restoring the Gulf Coast, would help the U.S. too. Louisiana is one of the nation’s leaders in fishing and oil, making it a crucial part of the U.S. economy as well.

The biggest problem with restoring the coast is that is requires money, and a lot of it. Organizations like the CPRA get funding from the government to help with their projects. For example, as of October 3, 2014, Louisiana received 340 million to restore the Gulf Coast. This money is for the coasts that were destroyed during the BP oil spill. But where does the rest of the money come from? People who are opposed the restoration of Louisiana’s coast say that restoring the coast is too much money. People don’t know if the money being used is tax dollars and some people don’t really believe that the coast is disappearing. Without people being informed about what’s really happening to the coast, they’ll never be able to understand what’s at stake.  However, if we don’t do something the state of Louisiana’s coast will be forever changed. It will only be a ghost of its former self.

 

Works cited:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569102000881

http://cggc.duke.edu/pdfs/CGGC_Gulf-Coast-Restoration.pdf

http://coastal.la.gov/about/

http://www.history.com/topics/1970s

Evolution of Coastal Environmental Policies

By: Savanna Ronco

Look at the evolution of coastal environmental policies from early 1900’s to the present try to identify several of the most apparent trends and discontinuities. What was happening to the relationship between the coastal U.S. population, the government, and the environment? How would you divide that history into episodes? What were the driving issues and concerns? Who were the most important players in setting the environmental agenda during those episodes? Write a 500-word response paper answering these questions.

The coast is substantially more crowded than the United States as a whole, with 39 percent of the nation’s total population living in costal counties. According to the 2011 U.S. Census Bureau, there was an increase of 34.8 million people living on the coasts from 1970 to 2010. It is projected that by 2020, there will be an additional 37 persons per square mile living on the coast.

Because of this increase in population, the government felt a need to regulate certain costal environmental policies. One of the first of the modern environmental statutes was the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. It created environmental policies and goals for the country and established the President’s Council on Environmental Quality. It also required that federal agencies conduct thorough assessments of the environmental impacts of all major activities funded by the federal government. The Clean Water Act and Coastal Zone Management Act both followed in 1972, establishing standards for water quality and purity and protecting the U.S. coastal zones from environmentally harmful overdevelopment. The Coastal Zone Management Act also provided federal funding for states to implement measures to conserve coastal areas.

The mid-1970’s brought the Endangered Species Act and the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, showing that the federal government was not only worried about regulating policies dealing with citizens, but also animals, especially those that were endangered. These acts also prevented overharvesting fish, which helps people whose careers rely on fisheries located on the coast.

The Toxic Substances Control Act was passed in 1976, authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate toxic chemicals in every stage from manufacturing to distribution. A decade later, in 1986, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act was passed, requiring companies to disclose information about any toxic chemicals they release, whether in the air or water. The same year, California passed a law called Proposition 65, known as the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act. This act was designed to provide public warning about potential exposure to toxic chemicals in their water. It helped make California a model for other coastal states dealing with these types of environmental problems.

Then, in March 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, dumping 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil into the water over the course of several days. This disaster led to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which outlines the federal response to future oil spills. This act requires oil storage facilities and vessels to prepare spill-response plans and be able to implement these plans quickly if disaster strikes. It also increased liability on the spiller’s part in the cost of cleanup and damage to natural resources.

In recent history, April 2010, the BP Oil Spill occurred, causing massive devastation to the Gulf of Mexico and southern costal states. The oil gushed into the Gulf for 87 days. By three years later, in 2013, Congress had only passed one piece of legislation in response to the spill, called the RESTORE Act. This act basically worked to hold the parties responsible for the spill also responsible for the cleanup and restoration of the Gulf.

Now, find a new development regarding the coastal environment that has raised public fears or concern; and research the issue and decide whether the concerns are warranted. Why? Why not? Write a 350-word editorial piece, using logic and evidence to persuade your audience of your opinion. Post your responses on our class blog under a single post. (Note: blog post counts only toward writing assignment grade, not toward the 5 regular blog post requirement).

It’s easy to see why a person would want to live by the sea. Not only is there beautiful views and delicious seafood, there are tons of job opportunities, especially in popular tourist hotspots. In fact, 39 percent of the nation’s total population lives in costal counties. According to the 2011 U.S. Census Bureau, there was an increase of 34.8 million people living on the coasts from 1970 to 2010. It is projected that by 2020, there will be an additional 37 persons per square mile living on the coast.

On top of the larger number of people residing on the coast, 80 percent of all US tourism takes place in coastal areas, especially on beaches and around coral reefs. Large tourism has brought heavy development to these coastal areas, inevitably causing problems over the years. The vast number of hotel and restaurant chains trying to make it in coastal areas has caused overdevelopment and, in many cases, destroyed local culture.

Though tourism is sometimes a good thing for a community’s economy, it can be dangerous for the coastal environment. Tourists add to the pollution, waste and water needs of the local coastal populations. Also, coastal areas are transitional areas between the land and sea and are very high in biodiversity but are also some of the most fragile ecosystems on Earth. Heavy urbanization on coastal lands can cause habitat loss in the region. Some locations are already damaged beyond repair. With tons of hotels, casinos, and restaurants opening up along the coast, the natural resources of the land are slowly being diminished.

Other problems resulting from heavy coastal tourism include: loss of marine resources due to destruction of coral reefs and overfishing, pollution of marine and freshwater resources, soil degradation and loss of land resources, air pollution, loss of cultural resources, social disruption, loss of public access, natural hazards and even climate change.

Though it may seem like this is an unsolvable problem, there are steps that coastal communities can take to decrease community harm brought on by tourism. This calls for better government regulation of costal tourism policies. Maybe it is necessary to limit the number of hotels that can be built in a certain area, therefore limiting the number of people able to stay in one place. Also, people need to increase their education on the environment. Too many tourists litter and pollute coastal towns, absentmindedly not caring about a town that they don’t actually live in. If coastal communities work to set up recycling bins and/or environmental propaganda like signs saying “keep our beaches clean,” it might help tourists to do their part in keeping the community clean.

U.S. Environmental History

coast

Gross wetland losses in coastal counties decreased between 1992 and 2007, but gross gains were not enough to offset the losses. Photo credit: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/?cid=stelprdb1117258

Environmental policies exist to protect our environments while creating minimal interference with commerce. In the early 1900’s there was not much regulation on polluting the environment. In 1899, the Rivers & Harbors Appropriation Act was passed. It is the oldest federal environmental law in the United States, making it a misdemeanor to pollute navigable waters within of the United States, helping protect waters and coastal land. It also made it illegal to dam navigable streams without a license or permit from Congress. In the early 1900’s environmentalists began demanding proper channeling of levees of rivers and streams because of devastating flooding. In 1928, Congress authorized major levee improvements in New Orleans with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers shoring up flood control systems along the entire lower Mississippi to contain river control. In the 1950’s, LSU Geology Professor James P. Morgan began to document dramatic rates of land loss in Louisiana’s coastal zone.

In the 1960s and 70s began an environmental movement in the United States, resulting in the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. From the 60’s to 80’s were the peak time that oil and gas companies dredged canals, creating new open water areas, drowning wetlands and allowing salt-water intrusion. Land loss insight was really acknowledged and identified in the 1970’s, after many years of damage occurred. In 1972, the Clean Water Act was passed prevent pollution to protect waters and provide assistance to publicly owned water treatment facilities. Also in 1972 the Coastal Zone Management Act was passed, which allows state and federal government organizations to work together to protect the United States coastal zones from over development, providing federal funding to conserve coastal areas.

In 1990, Congress passed the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act to rebuild Louisiana’s natural infrastructure. Later the Coast 2050 was developed to prevent more ecosystem loss, using the same natural forces that initially built the landscape.

Three extremely important characters during this time were Theodore Roosevelt, Gifford Pinchot and Richard Nixon. Roosevelt protected wildlife and public lands by creating the U. S. Forest Service and preserving bird reservations, national game preserves, national forests, and national parks. As time passed through out America’s history, people began to place value in the environment and see the negative impacts. Pinchot was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service, where he was the first to show the public benefits of managing forests. President Richard Nixon signed the executive order creating the EPA. In the 70s there was an increasingly alarming concern for environmental pollution. Also this year was the first Earth Day, where 20 million Americans participated. This shows the increasing knowledge and care for the environment.

As time has passed and more damage occurred, more damage has accumulated with more flooding and more erosion. This has led to the coastal population demanding help and the government passing more policies to help.

Timeline through history:

  • 1899 Rivers & Harbors Appropriation Act
  • Early 1900’s Environmentalists began demanding proper channeling of levees of rivers and streams (source)
  • 1928 Major levee improvements in New Orleans (source)
  • 1950s Documented dramatic rates of land loss in Louisiana’s coastal zone (source)
  • 1960s & 70s Environmental movement begins
  • 1960s – 80s Oil and gas companies dredged canals for exploration (source)
  • 1970 Environmental Protection Agency established
  • 1972 Clean Water Act (source)
  • 1972 Coastal Zone Management Act (source)
  • 1990 Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (source)
  • 1996 Coast 2050
  • 2005 Estuaries and Clean Waters Act
  • 2005 Water Resources Development Act
  • 2010 National Ocean Policy

 

Fracking, the drilling technique that has sparked public outcries and environmental concerns, has been expanding offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Fracking is where chemicals, water and sand are shot into the bottom of a well to stimulate the flow of oil and gas, then it can be removed easily. For the past 70 years this technique has been used on land, and only for the past 20 years has it been used commercially offshore.

Scientists who have studied fracking and industry representatives say environmentalists are overreacting about the environmental dangers of fracking. Environmentalists are concerned because they don’t know when or where these chemicals are being used in the Gulf of Mexico, which is important because the chemicals need to be treated to make sure of no negative environmental impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency has a water discharge policy that allows small amounts of these chemicals to enter the Gulf. This information of the amount of chemicals being released is not easily accessed. To better the fracking procedures and add transparency to the companies and organizations using this technique, it would be beneficial to all parties to allow easy access to the information of when and where fracking chemicals are being released into the Gulf, and also the quantity.

Maddie Duhon

How Environmental Policy is Evolving

by Kaci Jones

In the 1900s, people stated realizing that the things they were previously doing, like: turning prairies into cropland, cutting down forests, and hunting animals until extinction, wasn’t exactly what they needed to be doing. The consequences from their actions are starting to quickly catch up to them. During this era, the government was starting to increase protection of the nation’s natural resources that were quickly depleting. Nations forests and parks were starting to be established and management for these recreational areas was also put into place (“Migration”). There were multiple events that were occurring on the coastlines. For example, in New York the United States Supreme Court allowed them to dump sewage into the harbor. If this were to happen today the US Supreme Court would deny access, because people are more aware of the environment around them and would file law suites if they let this happen.

In August of 1922, a National Coast Anti Pollution League was proposed to stop all oil dumping. This is the start of the protection of our coast. When this League was created, New Orleans had reported, “A considerable proportion of the batteries are noticeably polluted with oil. No beach can be considered suitable for recreation. A disastrous fire occurred in the port a year ago, the fire to a considerable extent being spread by oil pollution (“Roaring”).” So you can see the problems we were having, but after this everything started to change. In October 1924, the Oil Pollution Act was passed and then two years later the Public Health Act was passed. These two acts helped tremendously to start the evolution of coastal policies changing, because these acts gave rules to not pollute and gave the people a say in their health and the health of people around polluted areas that can seriously alter their health (“Roaring”).

As the years go on leading up to the present day, the government has became more strict about chemicals that are allowed to leave plants and be exposed to the coast. I feel as if people have a better understanding of how valuable our coasts are and all the resources they provided for us. I believe that the U.S. coastal population, the government, and the environmental are all working together to keep everything on track and to keep the resources coming in, the waters clear, and the people happy.

In dividing the historical events of coastal policies up into episodes, I would probably do it by decade; so much has changed within the last 100 years and getting a good overview by decades would be a good starting point. I feel like showing people where we started in the beginning and what steps were taken throughout the years would be a good start to help people understand the evolution of the coastal policies a little better. Also adding in why these different acts were put into place, including the law suites would also benefit people by showing them why others thought it was injustice and why they wanted these acts to be out into place.

After the Public Health Act in 1926, there are a few more major bombs that hit the coastal population for the best. Going from decade to decade after the 1920s here are the bigger events that lead to the policies we have today and who were the major people who were influential during these decades:

1930’s- National Institute of Health was established in 1930 and Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933 (“Depression”).

1940s- In 1940 was the first time conserving our resources was put into a movie, Bambi, this started the bang in the film and book industry (“WWII”).

1950s- In 1956, the Water Pollution Control Act was passed (“Cold”).

1960s- The opposing of the French to dump radioactive wastes into the Mediterranean Sea was in 1960. In 1963, Senate Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution was created. In 1965, Water Quality Act was passed. Then the Environmental Protection Act was passed in 1969(“Sixties”).

1970s- In 1970, the Council on Environmental Quality was proposed and then Richard Nixon, president at the time, proposed the Environmental Protection Agency. Then in 1972, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act were all proposed, which was one of the biggest game changing years for our coast lands, which was followed by the Soil and Water Conservation Act in 1977 (“Seventies”).

1980s- In 1981, the Coastal Barriers Resources Act was passed by the US Congress. Then in 1982, the UN World Charter for Nature was passed, it is stated within this that, “All areas of the earth, both land and sea, shall be subject to these principles of conservation (“Eighties”);”

After the 1980s, the previous Acts started to we tweaked slowly and surely so that as technology increased, the regulations increased also. In all the decades, the president at the time and the members of the US Congress are the main people who were influential on the policy making.

 

References:

“Migration and Refugee Policies in the United States and Germany.” Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 50.3 (1996): 25-42. Nexus Learning. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Web.

“Roaring 1920s.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“Depression – 1930s.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“WWII & Postwar 1940-1949.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“Cold War 1950-59.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“Sixties 1960-69.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

“Seventies 1970-79.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.

“Eighties 1980-89.” Environmental History Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.

Master Plan

The Master Plan is a plan that has been put together from all three levels of government, local, state, and federal, to protect and restore Louisiana’s coastline after the hurricanes in 2005 hit, both Katrina and Rita.

As the Master Plan was in the process of going through public hearing to get the citizens of coastal Louisiana’s opinions of this plan they learned that some people were extremely happy with the change that was about to occur and then there were some people who deeply disapproved of everything there were going to do.

While looking through the long list of public comments, here are some of the concerns people had for the Master Plan that stood out to me:

  • Why are we restoring the coast when it’s just going to be gone in 20 years?
  • Basis! Only certain people could submit plans, how is that fair?
  • Why is it going to take so long?

Addressing one at a time, we’ll start with the first one. If we as a state don’t do anything about the erosion problem we currently have, then yes it will all be gone in 20 years. But the Master Plan has been implemented to reverse the erosion issues that coastal Louisiana are currently experiencing, and we as Louisianan’s have to fully believe that this plan will work and that we will have our land back in 20 years. Progress has been made and as a community we need to go forward with all spirits high.

Now addressing the second concern, the Master Plan was open on a government webpage asking for plans to be reviews that they can consider to be apart of the Master Plan, meaning that anyone and everyone could have submitted a plan for them to review and either accept or deny.

Addressing the last comment I thought needed to be address. Time. We have let our coastline deplete for multiple years now and that’s really the reason why. We sat, as a state, saying that our coastline was depleted, yet we weren’t doing anything counter active to help offset the effects. Therefore, now that we are starting the process of reversing the issues, we have to correct one thing and let it run its course. We didn’t lose the land over night and we’re not going to gain it back over night either.

I feel that these concerns people had were true concerns and not selfish arguments that others tried arguing. Living in Louisiana we’re all going to have doubts in the system or worries of failure and losing the land we love so much. But as of now, there are scientist that are working harder than ever to ensure land safely and as citizens here we have to trust it and keep living.